The gene also plays a role in regulating an infant’s weight during the pregnancy of a woman, and this has a link with caffeine intake. In humans, the CYP1A2 enzyme is encoded by the CYP1A2 gene. This was also observed in a study conducted on 415 Japanese women. Individuals who have the TT genotype in this specific polymorphism of the CYP1A2 gene may be fast metabolizers of caffeine. In non-smokers, CYP1A2 variants (having either a CC, AC or AA genotype) were associated with high caffeine intake, and also had low BP. Coffee, CYP1A2 Genotype, and Risk of Myocardial Infarction. ... Carriers of the CYP1A2 AA genotype may exhibit an increased total daily coffee intake, … The study was published in the peer-reviewed medical journal, the British Journal of Cancer and here you can just read the extract only. Individuals who are homozygous for the CYP1A2*1A allele are "rapid" caffeine metabolizers, whereas carriers of the variant CYP1A2*1F are "slow" caffeine metabolizers. This, in turn, increases your blood pressure for some time. Caffeine intake increases adrenaline production. They found a group of ‘highly inducible’ subjects that had a CYP1A2*1A/*1A genotype. It is a common ingredient in medications that are meant to treat drowsiness, migraines, and headaches. This occurs typically 12-24 hours after stopping caffeine. Some people have one slow and one fast copy of the variant and are said to be moderately tolerant to caffeine. Studies have shown that taking caffeine before exercise improves performance. Caffeine is metabolized by an enzyme in the liver that is encoded for by the CYP1A2 gene. However, those individuals who have two copies of the slow variant are slow metabolizers of caffeine and are said to be poorly tolerant of it. However, this effect can diminish in long-term coffee drinkers due to the developed tolerance. Smokers exhibit increased activity of this enzyme. Identification of this tendency will help in moderating coffee consumption, taking into account the individual's caffeine metabolism status. Analyze your CYP1A2 gene variants for Caffeine Metabolism, Find out if you carry the Slow or the Rapid variant of CYP1A2 gene, https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/202502, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2474926/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1735605/, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223974368_Caffeine_intake_and_CYP1A2_variants_associated_with_high_caffeine_intake_protect_non-smokers_from_hypertension, https://www.nature.com/articles/pr201770#:~:text=Maternal%20caffeine%20intake%20may%20increase,8%2C%209%2C%2010), Morning Person or a Night Owl: How Genes Influence Your Circadian Rhythm, How Genes Influence Caffeine-induced Insomnia, How Genes Influence The Risk Of Obstructive Sleep Apnea, How Genes Influence Excessive Daytime Sleepiness. The human CYP1A2 gene is located on chromosome 15 and contains seven exons. Approximately 10% of the population is found to be rapid caffeine metabolizers, showing a high tolerance to caffeine. In a two-way ANCOVA, a gene × coffee interactive effect was found on follow-up changes in systolic (P = 0.000) and diastolic (P = 0.007) blood pressure. Anything exceeding that can be harmful to the body. Over 95% of caffeine is metabolized by the CYP1A2 enzyme, which is encoded by the CYP1A2gene, and is involved in the demethylation of caffeine into the primary metabolites paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine (21). ... it depends on what substance you are breaking down. The gene CYP1A2 also has an association with caffeine metabolism and smoking. The enzyme produced by this gene is responsible for about 95% of all caffeine metabolisation in your body. The caffeine you ingest passes through the stomach and small intestine, entering the bloodstream in a little as 15 minutes. rs2472297 is a SNP located between the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes on ch 15q24.. A meta-analysis of four GWAS studies of coffee consumption among a total of ~8,000 coffee drinkers of European ancestry found that the rs2472297(T) was strongly associated with increased consumption (p = 5.4 x 10e-14). However, it is important to note that caffeine can cross the placental barrier, and therefore, can affect the fetus. This increases blood pressure and could lead to cardiovascular disease risk. The gene, known as CYP1A2, is also used by genetic testing firms to predict a person's risk of nonfatal heart attack. A common A to C polymorphism in the CYP1A2 gene consumption was not observed among women with the is associated with decreased enzyme inducibility and CYP1A2 AA genotype (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.49-1.77). Supplementing with. Variations in the CYP1A2 gene have a big impact on how caffeine affects our bodies. In non-smokers, CYP1A2 variants (having either a CC, AC, or AA genotype) were associated with hypertension. Dr. El-Sohemy suspected that the relationship between coffee and heart disease might also vary from one individual to the next. A study aimed to tie these concepts together to find the relationship between this gene and blood pressure (BP). Caffeine offers a range of benefits from something as small as over an afternoon slump to reducing the risk of some serious health conditions like heart diseases. Exons 2–6 are highly conserved among the human, mouse, and rat. Metabolism of caffeine by the CYP1A2 enzyme shows substantial variation between people, 41, 42 because of both genetic and environmental factors. In a study conducted on 2014 people, people who were slow metabolizers of caffeine (C variant) and who consumed more than 3 cups of coffee per day had an association with increased risk for myocardial infarction. The CYP1A2 gene regulates the synthesis of the enzyme, and small variations in this gene are associated with the efficiency of caffeine metabolism. The CYP1A2 gene regulates the synthesis of the enzyme, and small variations in this gene are associated with the efficiency of caffeine metabolism. CC, AC = CYP1A2*1C = Slow Metabolizer. After all, it would be good to know if you are prone to guzzling down a little too much, especially when your caffeine sensitivity scale is tipped at the wrong end. The pharmacologic effect of these variants remains to be proven with experimental studies. This explains why some people can drink more coffee or tea than others. What is CYP1A2, aka the caffeine gene? In the same study, CYP1A2 activity had a negative association with blood pressure among ex-smokers. This has a direct consequence on blood pressure, as well as fluid retention in the body. CYP1A2 codes for a protein that belongs to the Cytochrome P450 family. Muscle twitching is often a visible symptom of excess caffeine consumption. The study was funded by The Swedish Research Council and several oth The effect of caffeine on various systems of the body are as follows: Caffeine is a stimulant and causes mental alertness once it reaches the brain. The cytochrome P450 enzymes are monooxygenases, which catalyse many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. A little caffeine during pregnancy appears to be safe in most cases. Incidentally, 21-hydroxylase plays a role in the production of cortisol and another hormone named aldosterone. Resting metabolic rate describes the rate at which you burn calories at rest. Some people are genetically predisposed to produce very little of CYP1A2 enzyme while others may generate a sufficient amount. There seems to be an interesting trend in the activity of the CYP1A2 gene and caffeine intake. The large variability of CYP1A2 activity influences the clearance of caffeine and may be affected by factors such as gender, race, genetic polymorphisms, disease, and exposure to inducers 16,17,19. Coffee is the primary source of caffeine for Americans. Caffeine is a stimulant and the most commonly used drug on the planet. The gene codes for the CYP1A2 enzyme, which plays a role in both coffee and oestrogen metabolism. 43 There is some evidence, although not genome-wide significant, that polymorphisms in the gene are known to moderate the association between coffee consumption and hypertension 44 and myocardial infarction, 11 as well as the risk of breast cancer in … CYP1A2 and cardiovascular health There seems to be a link between CYP1A2, the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), and coffee intake. A previous study showed that C->A polymorphism in the intron I of CYP1A2 was associated with increased caffeine metabolism. Genetic tests can help identify such parameters. In a similar study on 513 people, increased intake of coffee, among slow metabolizers, has an association with an increased risk for hypertension. Early research also suggests that caffeine supports fat-burning during exercise. Both increased and decreased enzyme activity have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. It also plays a role in phase-1 detoxification, particularly in how well your body deals with HCAs and PAHs found in charred meats. Studies have shown that a genetic polymorphism in the CYP1A2 gene can affect the rate at which caffeine is metabolized in the liver. The babies are also at risk of being too small during the time of pregnancy. This suggests that the intake of caffeine has some role in this association. The activity of CYP1A2 can be influenced by factors such as sex, age, and smoking. Abstract. Individuals who are homozygous for the CYP1A2*1A allele are “rapid” caffeine metabolizers, whereas carriers of the variant CYP1A2*1F are “slow” caffeine metabolizers. The adrenal glands secrete the enzyme, 21-hydroxylase. Polymorphisms within the CYP1A2 gene were recently shown to be associated with coffee intake (4 – 6). Variations in this gene broadly divide people into two groups of metabolizers: In particular, two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) are found to influence caffeine metabolism: The haplotype CYP1A2*1F is associated with this variation. Urinary epinephrine was higher in coffee drinkers than abstainers but only among individuals with slow *1F allele (P = 0.001). Gene in Focus: Part 4 - CYP1A2 (Caffeine) The next gene we'll be looking at is CYP1A2. The enzyme efficiency varies between individuals. In conclusion, there are a lot of effects that the CYP1A2 gene has on the body. Conclusion These data show that the risk of hypertension associated with coffee intake varies according to CYP1A2 genotype. The ability to produce this enzyme is coded for by the CYP1A2-gene. The CYP1A2 gene breaks down caffeine, several major prescription drugs, and interacts with smoking. People of certain genetic types have a genetic predisposition to drink more cups of coffee. 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