how is terrorism a new form of asymmetrical warfare

The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Daesh are merely one of many armed groups in the world. The analytical approach that will be adopted will isolate and consider specifically a number of classic and contemporary concerns, ranging from Asia-Pacific and Cross-Strait Machinations: Challenges for Taiwan in the Nascent Phase of Pax-Sino. In the former, under attack or occupation from a superior power, it may be possible to use unconventional tactics such as hit-and-run and selective battles as an effective means of harassment without violatin… As A. J. Coates argues, the desire to have a tight definition is too narrow in that it focuses on one feature to the exclusion of others. Their actions by necessity have demanded a change in thinking by governments of nation-states—particularly Western nation-states. This is due to labeling a threat in this way disentangles the West from accepting and admitting reactions against it may have a reasoned and rationale evidence-base. To Fight or Not to Fight? For a comprehensive assessment of the Israel-Palestine conflict see, Tanya Reinhart, How to end the War of 1948.; ‘Nigeria: Corruption Fuelling Police Abuses.’  See: Human Rights Watch. Why I am a Proponent of the Just War Tradition, 6. [39] James Lutz and Brenda Lutz. As a result they have drawn the most ire and ongoing reactive violence from exogenous groups; and this shows no sign of decreasing. The fifth model, and the one I prefer, is the family-resemblance approach which foregoes tight definitions in favor of more empirical and contextual treatments of specific manifestations of terrorism. Within the realm of existentialism and as this article has borne out, no power has a dominance over what an existential threat comprises and moreover, there is some disagreement regarding whether terrorism is an existential threat to developed Western countries. A terrorist is ‘made’ through their own unique experiences and understandings associated with what has, or is happening to their country, people, religion, kin, tribe, culture and a multitude of other factors. Groups and individuals that present and are subsequently involved in fighting Western forces in non-Western environments essentially, ‘seek to liberate themselves and their co-nationals from what they perceive to be a colonial situation or a repressive government.’[39]  The existential-connectivity of a group is no doubt enhanced through their successes (and losses), and this it can be argued also informs and compels an ongoing belligerence toward their enemy. The usage of the term ‘existential threat,’—especially in political forums and the news media—it is fair to argue has gripped the public imagination and therefore, terrorism has gained a renewed vigour; and the term has further created a robust and enduring fear throughout the West. According to the political rhetoric the labeling of terrorism in this way is an acknowledgement that when a terrorist act is committed, it is free of social- and historical-constraints—the act is devoid of reason and made solely from personal accord. Any It is through the use of persistent minor lethal disruptions from which strategic- and political-advantage is gained. Suggests that chemical weapons pose a radically smaller level of threat than nuclear and biological weapons, and that plans oriented towards chemical threats are not adequate as a Homeland defense or response. To craft an effective but unethical counterterrorism is to be little or no better than our opponents. [17] See: ‘empiricism.’ Dictionary.com/British Dictionary. Whether it has been brought about by numerous failed models of interventionism, it is necessary for Western governments to label terrorism as an existential-threat rather than an empirical- or rational-threat. From a broader political perspective the existential threat the West represents—as a body-politic—is usually judged through the prism of political recognition, military-ties and economic benefits and the concomitant non-recognition that non-state actors may have valid claims regarding exploitative government- and economic-structures, and that repression and discrimination are present. [38] Marc Sageman. See:  John Barry. While a given act of terror might not exhibit all of these characteristics, it nonetheless bears enough of a family resemblance to be recognized for what it is—an act of terror. In the modern context, asymmetric warfare is increasingly considered a component of fourth generation warfare. Washington was furious and immediately turned on the Taliban and branded it an ‘outlaw regime.’[32]   Terrorism as an act for Al-Qaeda and the Taliban is seen of as a reaction to what is often referred to as ‘Westoxification’[33]  has hinged on many issues although it comes under the macrocosm of the selective inclusion of politico-, military- and economic-principles of the West; and the (selective) application of these to Middle East, Southeast and Central Asian Muslim societies. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Red-Army-Faction. Global Terrorism. What are the characteristics, therefore, often exhibited by the terrorism “family tree”? 18 July, 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-33578890. ; France had been stating for months in 2012, that a West African military force should bring control to Mali. The tactical success in future wars depends on at least one of two assumptions. The phrase was always too broad and too ambiguous, and it implied some kind of unity in the threat that never existed. Algeria 1954 – 1962. Image by DVIDSHUB (Sgt. ASYMMETRIC WARFARE: THE ONLY THING NEW IS THE TACTICS LTC DAN DALEY, USA/CLASS OF 2000 COURSE 5605 SEMINAR N FACULTY SEMINAR LEADER CAPT JAMES MADER, USN FACULTY ADVISOR COL TOM SMITH, USA. [11] Existentialism begins with ‘man as existent rather than man as a thinking subject.’  Sartre’s theorizing and philosophising considers man to be the subject, what happens to him is what makes him, it is the philosophy of the subject rather than the object. Have all new posts delivered straight to your inbox. In regard to means, acts of terror involve the deliberate killing of noncombatants or harming of property to create a spirit of fear in order to gain leverage for attaining various goals. 1st Class Jeff Duran), especially in political forums and the news media, http://www.public.asu.edu/~jmlynch/273/documents/sartre-existentialism-squashed.pdf, https://www.hrw.org/tag/philippines-war-drugs, https://www.hrw.org/news/2010/08/17/nigeria-corruption-fueling-police-abuses, https://www.europeaninstitute.org/index.php/167-european-affairs/ea-january-2013/1683-mali-the-french-way-of-war, http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/02/12/why-did-we-fail-in-the-afghan-war-because-we-didnt-understand-the-place/, The Sovereign Nation-State as a Contributor to Terrorism. This is writ large in the following observation, The American tradition [of fighting wars and of intervention] also tends to neglect the lesson, learned repeatedly in dozens of twentieth-century wars, that the only way to defeat an insurgency campaign is not to attack the enemy but instead to protect and win over the people.[42]. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 2017, 143. This act of war was not launched by the leader or governing body of a nation-state, but by a millionaire—Osama bin Laden—who appointed himself leader of the Islamic world. A Reconstruction. Terrorists and freedom fighters may in certain contexts use similar tactics or have similar goals, thus blurring the lines between the two except for the context in which each fights. [36]  What is an existential-threat is dependent on perspectives. Chapter 2 explores the terms insurgency and terrorism as objectives forms of asymmetric warfare. [28] Joseph Collins. Notwithstanding these factors, attacks of this type have been used as strategic and tactical necessities by terrorists for many decades. The West, usually through the mechanisms of the United Nations, persistently fails abysmally in its problem-solving. Dr. Bruce Ashford serves as Provost and Professor of Theology & Culture at Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. Soft-targets will remain at the forefront of exogenous actors preferred method of objecting to, and repulsing the West. [24] Authorities therefore, are reduced in their capabilities as (usually) and by necessity, authorities are pre-positioned as a response to actions; and the attacks are opportunistic and this too, favors the initiator. [1] For an overarching account of this action. All in some way contribute to ‘the interests and desires of the individual become secondary to the group [or individual cause] and he/she will take any steps to advance its [and if the act is a lone-wolf attack it must, by necessity, contribute to the group] goals.’[41]  The actions may be different dependent on the actors, however, this article argues that they are driven by observing the West as an existential threat to their religion, culture, and tribe along with many other aspects of their lives and moreover, the acts of violence will continue as long as the West is perceived as an existential threat. ... State Pension payments will rise this year - here are all the new weekly rates. Just war principles reveal that terrorism is an aggressively and systematically unjust form of warfare. Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence for political or religious purposes. The hostility is generalized and indiscriminate. [41] Ami Pedahzur. Chesham: Acumen Publishing, 2006, 111. Existentialism was, and remains a response to previous intellectual pursuits of reason and rationale. The drastic change that has come about for authorities in the West is that they are now dealing with people ‘willing to die in pursuit of the action,’[22] in a deliberate way whereas, in previous decades the aim was to survive the attack in order to fight another day. It is the perceptions that lead to action that requires analysis and it is necessary to delve deeper into what is meant by the term ‘existential’; whether terrorism fulfills the requirements within the definition. He is also the author of Every Square Inch: An Introduction to Cultural Engagement for Christians and One Nation Under God: A Christian Hope for American Politics. 7 Moral Criteria to Guide Commanders during Battle. “The United States has now ‘weaponized’ the term (terrorism) in pursuit of its foreign policy goals. Homeland - Ebook written by Anthony H. Cordesman. The tradition developed to help control conventional warfare, but it is no less applicable to the terrorism and asymmetrical warfare prevalent in contemporary conflicts. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neutral military personnel). Narco-terrorism is here understood as an integral component of Pakistan’s state-sponsorship of cross-border terrorism used so as to fund and conduct asymmetric warfare against its neighbours -foremost India- and achieve certain foreign policy goals,” points out Wolf. The cause being exercised through the prism of a certain set of values via recalcitrance and in this case through the usage of violence. [33] Samuel Huntington. 1. The most lethal form of recent disruptions have been by  ‘lone-wolf’[23] actors, and this is closely followed by actors working within  small cells—usually referred to as ‘sleeper cells.’ The tactics of both have progressively concentrated on ‘soft target’ disruption, which essentially involves the killing of civilians in public places and from a tactical perspective these attacks have been successful in part, because the individuals’ have no followers; are not part of a group; and have no hierarchy of control. “Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists,’  Sociological Theory. Global Terrorism. They do so therefore in ways that seem random to the population, and which therefore destabilize society and demoralize its elected officials and law-enforcement officers. All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License, Copyright © — E-International Relations. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005, 7. The followers it is safe to argue, embrace relevant political and cultural ideologies of the group, which in ideologies in turn ‘drive the actions’[40] and this relates to lone-wolf as well as group actors. amount, in any currency, is appreciated. Such threats include covert attacks by state actors, state use of proxies, independent terrorist and extremist attacks by foreign groups or individuals, and independent … The 9/11 attacks are a quintessential example of terrorism. ‘Is terrorism in Europe at an historical high?’ World Economic Forum. That is the Question. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. Buy Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction (Praeger Security International) by Cordesman, Anthony H. (ISBN: 9780313361197) from Amazon's Book Store. The link that is able to be made here is a terrorist, when reacting through the prism of violence is effectively, using violence as an extension of their reality. To extend on this point the application of terrorism depends on the perpetrator’s attitude, loyalties and focus and therefore it is pertinent to mention the differences between Western values and the values of others. The second type is the religious lone-wolf, who perpetrates terrorism in the name of Islam, Judaism or some other belief system.’  See: Jeffrey Simon. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Terrorism & Asymmetrical Warfare? Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999, 15. For the West, terrorists’ acting against the State comprises a triad: the method (violence), the target (civilian or government), and the purpose (to instill fear and enforce political or social change).[6]. That is the Question. See:  John Jenkins. Why I am a Proponent of the Just War Tradition, The “Founding Fathers” of the Just War Tradition, Seven All-Stars of the Just War Tradition, Eight Recent Champions of the Just War Tradition, 8 Criteria for Deciding When It’s Right to Go to War, 7 Moral Criteria to Guide Commanders during Battle. Notwithstanding the abovementioned, the adding of the word ‘existential’ to the word ‘threat’ offers an all-encompassing concept to the practice of terrorism. Never miss a post! See: https://www.hrw.org/tag/philippines-war-drugs. The other view is that asymmetric warfare does not coincide with terrorism. 24 May, 2016.  https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/03/terrorism-in-europe-at-historical-high/, [22] ‘Is terrorism in Europe at an historical high?’, [23] There are four ‘types’ of ‘lone-wolf’ attackers and for the purpose of this essay it is the second ‘type’ that is of most interest here. Yuval Harari argues that the peacefulness of modern states makes them paradoxically more vulnerable to terrorism than pre-modern states. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. The first category defines terrorism in tactical and operational terms, focusing on the type of weapons used or on the mode of employment of those weapons. As regards disposition, terrorists exhibit a cold, calculated, and impersonal hatred of entire categories of people. When practiced outside the laws of war, it is often defined as terrorism, though rarely by its practitioners or their supporters. What is of interest here, however, is the decision-making according to the existential paradigm and the concomitant psycho- and socio-homogenization of the populace. The type of conflict varies widely; historical examples include: Secession of a territory to form a new … [4] ee:’Nigeria Chibok abductions: What we know.’  BBCNews. Whether the decision made by a person willing to commit a terrorist act is empirical or existential (or a combination of both), is a moot point as what is being analysed here the politico-application of the term ‘existential,’ and the concomitant considerations therein. The recalcitrance referred to has inspired, and then drawn in many other actors. The terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" Currently, the term ‘terrorist’ has, in many cases, overcome the rest of them. Group was also involved in kidnapping and assassinations and had at least core... Publisher run by an all volunteer team a result they have drawn the ire! To support open access publishing some form of asymmetric and terrorist attacks 1970 – 2016 14 -17: Books... Existentialism and terrorism attacks 1970 – 2016 unresolved political conflict the characteristics, therefore, is a that...: Sage Publications, 2004, 98-99, 212-213 engaged in bank robberies, arson and terrorism China-Pakistan. 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