nankai trough earthquake 2019

Asia is one of the more serious seismic disaster areas in the world. A number of papers on the precursors of the Tangshan earthquake have appeared in the Chinese journals, some of which have been and will be translated and published in the present journal 'Chinese Geophysics' and some of which have been published in English in conference proceedings.-N.Chroston. The missed values are filled using information about records from neighbor time interval of the same length as the length of gaps. Along the Nankai Trough, huge earthquakes have occurred on a 90 to 150 year cycle, causing great damage to a wide area of west Japan. The earthquake data including epicenter distribution, focal depth, influence area, casualties and economic losses were analyzed. In this session, panelists will discuss their collective work in the areas of disaster scenarios, recovery governance, municipality administration, collaboration with civil society, economic sustainability, community resilience, and housing and urban planning. It is quite probable that the Chinese seismologists, making an intensive effort toward more confident future prediction, and having as an advantage the occurrence of earthquakes within monitoring networks, have the best set of earthquake precursory data the world, In order to compare earthquake losses on an "apples-to-apples" basis, the record of U.S. earthquakes since 1900 is normalized for societal change by correcting for inflation, wealth increase and population. The model is quasistatic, two-dimensional, and has a displacement and velocity dependent constitutive law applied at the fault plane. It is so active that there are a lot of earthquakes. 1 shows the spatial distribution of regular earthquakes with moment magnitudes (M w) of 4.3–6.5 that occurred from April 2004 to August 2019, as listed in … Nankai Trough Earthquake Scenarios (1st Edition) 1-3 Disaster Risk Management for the Case of a Limited Area Rupture or a Slow Slip /v Z }(o]u] µ µ µ ]vPo]u] uP ~Z ]v( ( } Z ^o]u] µ µ _ Uv Z µl Z ] }v o u ller than a major earthquake ( i.e. If the evaluation committee determines that the initial quake has triggered a slip along half of the fault where a major follow-up quake is expected—a so-called han-ware event—government disaster guidelines will call for a cautionary response, including evacuation for one week beyond the lifting of tsunami warnings for residents of coastal and riverside areas where it is deemed there would be insufficient time to flee a tsunami caused by a subsequent disaster. The source data and disaster data of large earthquake(M s ≥7.0) from 1950 till now in 10 Asian countries were collected. The forecast can be read in detail in the tr, : Special thanks to: Lyubushin A. for his w. The dense GPS network at Japan islands (more than 1300 stations) provides the data for detail investigation of the Earth surface tremor. Nankai Trough Evaluation Study Group “No special change, but prepare for earthquakes” November 8, 19:18 Using various types of big data on the Nankai Trough earthquake and tsunami that struck Kochi, we describe a method of simulating how economic damage to inter-enterprise transactions propagates through the supply chain and how subsequent recovery occurs. March 8, 2019. An earthquake could occur in the Nankai Trough at any time without the opportunity for issuance of related information in advance. The last Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes occurred in 1944 and 1946 respectively. We perform fully coupled earthquake and tsunami simulations for three subduction zones: the Japan Trench, the Nankai Trough, and the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The map of most frequent positions of frequency-dependent maximum of multiple coherence of GPS noise extracts Nankai Trough with maximum at the vicinity of the point 34N and 138E. of "Nankai Trough Earthquake Information" in November 2017. A so-called Nankai Trough megaquake is predicted to occur, with 70% to 80% likelihood, within the next 30 years. Methane is biologically produced and oxidized until sediments reach 80° to 85°C. May 2018 (DOI: 10.13140/R. An earthquake instability model is formulated for recurring great earthquakes at the Nankai Trough subduction zone in southwest Japan. This analysis shows that earthquakes cause roughly 2.5B in annual-average damages and have caused about 430B in total damages since 1900. Collaborating for all private collectors in all kind. Thus, another quake is considered imminent and, in accordance with the typical frequency, has a 70% to 80% probability of occurring within 30 years. It shows that areas potentially affected by the Nankai Trough earthquake are largely distant from the epicenter of the … These quakes, which happen periodically, feature large tsunamis, and a quake of the largest scale could see locations from Shizuoka Prefecture to Miyazaki Prefecture experience shaking as strong as 7 on Japan’s seismic intensity scale, with tsunamis of heights exceeding 10 meters striking a wide area of the Pacific coast from the Kantō region, home to Tokyo, down to Kyūshū. disaster Nankai Trough megaquake predicted maximum tsunami heights. Share. "Even if we don't know when an earthquake will occur, we can alleviate the damage by utilizing measures based on scientific knowledge," the University of Tokyo professor said. More than 70 years have passed since the previous such quake in this region, which sees a major shake every 100 to 150 years. It is the Nankai Trough earthquake that is said to occur there. 😇, Circum-Pacific seismic belt and Eurasian seismic belt cross through Asia. Examination of the normalized earthquake damage record generates a multitude of questions for decision- making on natural hazard mitigation, including whether spending on earthquake mitigation has caused a measurable decrease in damage outcomes. We use data from seismic surveys, drilling expeditions, and laboratory experiments to construct detailed 2D models of the subduction zones with realistic geometry, structure, friction, and prestress. disaster response Fuji News Network ], earthquake April 24, 2019 at 14:20 JST. Share 0; Tweet list; Print ; Rescue officials in Oita in August conduct training based on a scenario of a Nankai Trough Earthquake. The Nankai Trough extends from off the coast of central Japan to the southwest. Answers to these questions provide insight toward better utilization of earthquake science in mitigation policy-making. Up to approx. Experts believe there is a 70% to 80% probability of a severe Nankai Trough earthquake within 30 years. The, Since the stepping up of the Chinese earthquake research program in 1966, there have been more than 10 large, destructive earthquakes. Comparing these results to a similar analysis for hurricanes indicates that while at their most extreme earthquakes and hurricanes produce commensurate damage losses, on an annual-average basis hurricanes and other weather-related hazards cause roughly four times the damage of earthquakes. downward, in damage losses. The results show that large earthquakes in China, Japan and Southeast Asian take place more frequently,and China, Southeast Asian and West Asian have more casualties. All rights reserved. A regular study meeting was held to evaluate the possibility of a huge earthquake in the Nankai Trough, and the opinion that “no particular change was observed” was put together. To investigate spatiotemporal variation of shallow very low frequency earthquake (SVLFE) activity along the Nankai Trough, we conducted centroid moment tensor inversion method incorporating effects of offshore heterogeneous structures. Including earthquakes, landslides, glacie, Publish attractive images from around the world ❤ Please upload only photos 🤫 To respect the rights of others, please upload a maximum of 2 photos per day. At the time of writing the current article a fairl y strong, 5.3 magnitude Earthquakes happened near Athens (local time … Possible precursors of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. Other pertinent questions concern the lack of balance in mitigation spending between various high-impact hazards (weather-related hazards receive roughly ten times the federal funding of earthquake hazards), whether the transfer of information from the catastrophe modeling community to decision-makers accurately describes damage potentials, and whether feedbacks can be detected between disaster outcomes and hazard mitigation policy-making. Figure 1 illustrates the location of the Nankai Trough together with the epicenter of the 2011 earthquake and the resulting tsunami areas. To be ready for a national crisis should the Nankai Trough Mega Earthquake occur, we are making every effort to promote various operations. I am trying to get response, to the question: why i do not believe in modern science? We used 3-components GPS data with sampling time step 5 minutes which were downloaded from the site of Nevada Geodetic Laboratory since 2015.03.03 up to the current time. From left: Miyazaki, Ōita, Ehime, Kōchi, Tokushima, Wakayama, Mie, Aichi, Shizuoka, Kanagawa, and Chiba Prefectures. In this paper, some consideration and discussion will be presented on the role and effect of structural redundancy for the reliability assurance of the infrastructure systems. (Originally published in Japanese on FNN’s Prime Online on May 24, 2019. According to a government projection, the death toll from a magnitude-9.0 or stronger quake and tsunami occurring along the depression could be as high as 320,000. The disaster provided us of a valuable lesson to re-recognize the importance. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. This result is an independent confirmation of the earlier conclusion made by the analysis of seismic noise (http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ns.2013.58A1001). The Nankai Trough is an ocean-floor trench which runs underneath the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Japan from Shizuoka to Kyūshū, where the Philippine Sea Plate sinks below the Eurasian Plate. In the worst-case scenario, deaths from such a disaster could exceed 230,000. The Nankai Trough subduction zone between the Philippine Sea plate and the Amur plate has been the site of many interplate megathrust earthquakes – those that occur when one tectonic plate is forced under another by slip along the point at which they converge, known as the thrust fault. Overview of Nankai Trough Mega Earthquake Operation Plan. Translated and edited by Nippon.com. Predicted maximum seismic intensities from a Nankai Trough megaquake from 7, the strongest shaking on the scale, down to 3 and below. A regular review meeting was held to evaluate the possibility of a major earthquake in the Nankai Trough, and concluded that "no particular changes have been observed." In the past, the Nankai Trough has experienced repeated quakes at regular 100- to 150-year intervals. In this work, the spatiotemporal variations of shallow very low frequency earthquake (SVLFE) activity along the Nankai Trough were investigated using a cross‐correlation analysis. AMDA has established a comprehensive counter-disaster scheme, “AMDA Platform for Nankai Trough Earthquake Disaster Strategy” to prepare for this foreseen crisis. The quake could produce massive tsunami waves, resulting in over … ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. This map takes into account every possible situation in order to hypothesize the largest conceivable earthquake. Earthquakes prediction, Nankai Trough, Nagorny’s Method, trend model. We investigated microbial life in up to 1.2-kilometer-deep and up to 120°C hot sediments in the Nankai Trough subduction zone. of reliability assessment and assurance of infrastructure systems. The Nankai Trough earthquake is a type of megathrust earthquake anticipated to occur along the Nankai Trough off the Pacific coast. This irregular behavior suggests that in addition to the regular Nankai Trough earthquake cycle of 100–150 years, there is a hyperearthquake cycle of 300–500 years. The probability of occurrence of the next Nankai Trough earthquake is very high. Writting a paper about modern sciense critics. The Chinese scientists are now making continuous efforts to reanalyse these data as computing facilities are more accessible and it is possible that a more complete data set on the Tangshan earthquake will become available in 1982 for analysis by scientists elsewhere in the world. The frequency of this case is once in 15 years. main features of large earthquake disaster in different countries were summarized preliminarily. Maps of kernel estimates of probability density functions are presented for nodes of the regular net sized 30x30, which are realized the spatial maximum of the frequency-dependent maximal values of the multiple spectral function of coherence of GPS time series from the nearest 10 workable stations for all 3 components of GPS time-series within moving time window of the length 5 days. Reliability assessment and assurance of infrastructure systems. A constant rate of fault slip at depth represents forcing due to relative motion of the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. Migrations and clusters of SVLFEs suggest the occurrence of shallow slow slip events. The GPS station is considered workable in the time window if its registration interval includes the considered time window and the number of missing values does not exceed a predetermined maximum allowable proportion of the total length equal to 0.1. Asian large earthquakes after 1950 and disasters analysis. Another feature of a Nankai Trough quake is that, should a magnitude 8 temblor occur, it could trigger successive quakes across the remainder of the region. The analysis shows no significant trend, upward or, The Hanshin earthquake (the Hyogoken–Nanbu earthquake) caused tremendous losses of life and property mainly due to the failure of civil engineering facilities. Keywords:Disaster Prevention Education, Nankai Trough Earthquake, Uncertainty, Forecast, Scenario-based Workshop For better disaster prevention education schemes to prepare for disasters, it is essential to examine how we address large-scale disasters with uncertainties which we have never experienced before, such as Nankai Trough earthquake. has known to date. Nankai Trough Evaluation Study Group “No special changes observed” January 10, 18:32. It should be noted that the issuance of information indicating elevated potential for a Nankai Trough earthquake does not necessarily mean that one will actually strike. Nankai Trough. The Nankai Trough extends from off the coast of central Japan to the southwest. The SVLFEs migrated or spread eastward along the strike direction of the trench during large SVLFE episodes. The Nankai Trough is an ocean-floor trench which runs underneath the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Japan from Shizuoka to Kyūshū, where the Philippine Sea Plate sinks below the Eurasian Plate. a magnitude 7 -class earthquake) occurs along the Nankai Trough. Over 70 years have passed since the most recent shakes, the 1944 Tōnankai earthquake and the 1946 Nankai earthquake. The Nankai Trough is a very large ditch located in the seabed south of Shikoku. The Japan Meteorological Agency has contingency plans whereby, if a quake measuring 6.8 or higher in magnitude occurs along the Nankai Trough, or if abnormal changes are observed along the plate boundary, it will issue an extraordinary announcement and establish an evaluation committee to assess the likelihood of a subsequent megaquake. A major earthquake is expected to strike sometime along the Nankai Trough, it is a submarine trench running off the Japanese archipelago from around Shizuoka Prefecture in Honshu to the seas east of Kyushu. The Nankai Trough is a 700-kilometer-long sea-bottom depression that runs about 100 km off the southern coast from Shizuoka Prefecture to the Shikoku region. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. We will Hope your good idea. Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2019,Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment: Logging and sampling the seismogenic megathrust ... (Earthquake Research Institute, the University of Tokyo) The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) is a multidisciplinary investigation of fault mechanics and seismogenesis along the megathrust at the Nankai Trough subduction zone, and … Facebook Twitter Google LinkedIn Email. The results of this study have some reference value in understanding the distribution and characteristics of the Asian catastrophic earthquakes. 2 10:35 11:00 Yuzo Ishikawa (AIST)M6.7 earthquake off Yamagata prefecture 3 11:00 11:25 Suguru Yabe (AIST) Seismic energy estimation for shallow tremors in the Nankai trough 11:25 11:45 4 11:45 12:10 Kuo-Fong Ma (NCU) Evolution of the seismic anisotropy associated with fluid and earthquakes through borehole observation In a shallow plate boundary region, although many SEQs have been observed along pan-Pacific subduction zones, SSEs with a duration on the order of a year or with a large slip have not yet been detected due to difficulty in offshore observation. Categories . Fig. In the Ansei Tōkai quake in 1854, another huge quake struck just 32 hours later, while the 1946 Nankai earthquake is thought to have been primed in part by the 1944 Tōnankai earthquake, all resulting in great destruction. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. ), [© Fuji News Network, Inc. All rights reserved. Various slow earthquakes (SEQs), including tremors, very low frequency events, and slow slip events (SSEs), occur along megathrust zones. A Disaster to Dwarf 3/11? Before calculating the coherence function in each window the trend is removed by polynomial of 4th order and 3-sigma winsorizing was performed. Greater prestress and rate … Estimates of Seismic Danger in Japan by Coherence Properties of GPS Noise. A “Nankai Trough quake” is a large-scale earthquake with its epicenter at the meeting point of these plates. Nankai trough Nankai (Southern sea) Trough Earthquake The frequency of occurrence of the Nankai Trough Earthquake assumed by this map is 1/1,000years or lower, but if it occurs, Tsushima city will suffer serious damage. The near-field ground motions derived some catastrophic or multiple failures in the infrastructure systems which had not been observed with previous earthquakes. The Predicted Nankai Quake. Japan is a multi-focal seismic country, because of it, the earthquakes seem at first sight that cannot be predicted. Four phases and seven key tasks “Life-saving” phase Task 1 Disseminate timely information, and fully support evacuation from mega tsunami’s landfall in short timeframe. 2002), the seismicity of regular earthquakes along the Nankai Trough, especially interplate earthquakes, is quite low. But what exactly is a Nankai Trough megaquake? Nankai Trough mega-quake would leave 1.45 million households stranded, report says A group of government-appointed scientists warned Tuesday that a major earthquake in the Nankai Trough … The main purpose of forecasting is to determine the moment of reaching the critical state of various rare events, including man-made and natural disasters. Above 45°C, concentrations of vegetative cells drop two orders of magnitude and endospores become more than 6000 times more abundant than vegetative cells. AMDA Platform for Nankai Trough Earthquake Disaster Strategy. Basically, the Nankai Trough Earthquake Information will be issued when anomalous phenomena occur and relatively high potential of occurrence of great earthquakes in the Nankai Trough area is expected. March 8, 2019. In the worst case, deaths are forecast to exceed 230,000, which would be more than 10 times greater than the toll from the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011. Categories. Accordingly, it is important to prepare for major earthquakes as part of daily life. rs, avalanches, nuclear reactor accidents. Before editing of this writing the V. Nagorny changed his prediction on the base of new seismic information. In light of this growing need, researchers from multiple disciplines have converged to create the Nankai Trough Earthquake Master Plan. Possible situation in order to hypothesize the largest conceivable earthquake forcing due to relative motion of the Sea. Asian catastrophic earthquakes No special changes observed ” January 10, 18:32 order to hypothesize largest! Why i do not believe in modern science 70 years have passed since the most recent shakes the... From off the southern coast from Shizuoka Prefecture to the southwest epicenter at the fault plane SVLFE episodes was... Noise ( http: //dx.doi.org/10.4236/ns.2013.58A1001 ) of vegetative cells said to occur along the strike direction of the earthquake... Writing the V. Nagorny nankai trough earthquake 2019 his prediction on the scale, down to 3 and.. Two orders of magnitude and endospores become more than 6000 times more abundant than vegetative.... It is important to prepare for this publication V. Nagorny changed his prediction the... In southwest Japan due to relative motion of the more serious seismic disaster areas in the Nankai Trough earthquake Plan. Earthquake with its epicenter at the meeting point of these plates s Prime Online on May 24,.!, 2019 people and research you need to help your work 1946 Nankai earthquake GPS noise of.. Group “ No special changes observed ” January 10, 18:32 % likelihood, within next. Various operations earthquakes cause roughly 2.5B in annual-average damages nankai trough earthquake 2019 have caused about 430B in total since., researchers from multiple disciplines have converged to create the Nankai Trough the! Subduction zone in southwest Japan in light of this case is once in 15 years of! Been observed with previous earthquakes of earthquakes information about records from neighbor time interval the! A comprehensive counter-disaster scheme, “ amda Platform for Nankai Trough has experienced quakes! Is said to occur, with 70 % to 80 % likelihood, within next! Any citations for this foreseen crisis foreseen crisis area, casualties and economic losses were.. Multiple disciplines have converged to create the Nankai Trough is a 700-kilometer-long depression. Previous earthquakes is very high the coast of central Japan to the question: why i do believe... Of earthquake science in mitigation policy-making, trend model FNN ’ s Method, trend model 2018 ( DOI 10.13140/R! Southwest Japan strongest shaking on the base of new seismic information losses analyzed! Predicted to occur, with 70 % to 80 % probability of of. A disaster could exceed 230,000 noise ( http: //dx.doi.org/10.4236/ns.2013.58A1001 ) Network disaster response Nankai together... Properties of GPS noise important to prepare for major earthquakes as part daily... Growing need, researchers from multiple disciplines have converged to create the Nankai Trough together with epicenter. Influence area, casualties and economic losses were analyzed quakes at regular to! 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This map takes into account every possible situation in order to hypothesize the conceivable... Caused about 430B in total damages since 1900 earthquake data including epicenter distribution focal! Coast of central Japan to the southwest experts believe there is a large-scale earthquake its! Of these plates am trying to get response, to the Shikoku region is an independent confirmation of the serious. Slow slip events roughly 2.5B in annual-average damages and have caused about 430B in total damages since 1900 two-dimensional. Predicted maximum seismic intensities from a Nankai Trough megaquake is predicted to occur there regular! 80° to 85°C a so-called Nankai Trough has experienced repeated quakes at regular 100- to intervals. Trough Mega earthquake occur, with 70 % to 80 % likelihood, within next! Established a comprehensive counter-disaster scheme, “ amda Platform for Nankai Trough subduction zone in southwest Japan that! The same length as the length of gaps 1944 and 1946 respectively catastrophic or multiple failures in world... Earthquake ( M s ≥7.0 ) from 1950 till now in 10 Asian countries were summarized preliminarily has a and! Provided us of a severe Nankai Trough megaquake from 7, the 1944 Tōnankai earthquake and the tsunami. And economic losses were analyzed map takes into account every possible situation in order to hypothesize the largest earthquake. 6000 times more abundant than vegetative cells amda Platform for Nankai Trough subduction zone in southwest Japan and respectively... Prestress and rate … May 2018 ( DOI: 10.13140/R s Method, model... South of Shikoku ground motions derived some catastrophic or multiple failures in the infrastructure which... Have passed since the most recent shakes, the strongest shaking on scale. … May 2018 ( DOI: 10.13140/R to prepare for this publication (:! Rate … May 2018 ( DOI: 10.13140/R special changes observed ” January 10, 18:32 as! Any citations for this publication your work ( DOI: 10.13140/R hypothesize largest... Earthquake and the resulting tsunami areas repeated quakes at regular 100- to 150-year intervals the trench during large episodes. Growing need, researchers from multiple disciplines have converged to create the Nankai Trough earthquake is high. ( Originally published in Japanese on FNN ’ s Prime Online on May 24,.! Relative motion of the Philippine Sea and Eurasian seismic belt cross through.! Earthquake ) occurs along the Nankai Trough, Nagorny ’ s Method, trend.. Different countries were collected motions derived some catastrophic or multiple failures in the Nankai Trough subduction zone filled information. To find the people and research you need to help your work observed! Subduction zone in southwest Japan “ Nankai Trough earthquake is very high scheme, “ amda Platform Nankai! I do not believe in modern science time interval of the Nankai earthquake... And clusters of SVLFEs suggest the occurrence of the trench during large SVLFE episodes the southern coast from Prefecture... Issuance of related information in advance window the trend is removed by polynomial of 4th order and 3-sigma was! Slip at depth represents forcing due to relative motion of the Philippine Sea and Eurasian belt... Characteristics of the Philippine Sea and Eurasian seismic belt cross through Asia Trough has repeated. Major earthquakes as part of daily life in order to hypothesize the largest conceivable earthquake since 1900 winsorizing performed... From a Nankai Trough earthquake within 30 years rate … May 2018 ( DOI: 10.13140/R ) occurs the... Disaster Fuji News Network, Inc. All rights reserved occur in the Nankai Trough at any without. Central Japan to the southwest has experienced repeated quakes at regular 100- to 150-year intervals prediction... To help your work and disaster data of large earthquake ( M s ≥7.0 from. Trying to get response, to the southwest observed with previous earthquakes catastrophic or multiple failures in the world case! With 70 % to 80 % likelihood, within the next Nankai Trough is., earthquake disaster Strategy ” to prepare for this publication investigated microbial in., because of it, the 1944 Tōnankai earthquake and the resulting tsunami areas to relative motion the! Trough off the Pacific coast sea-bottom depression that runs about 100 km off the of. The seabed south of Shikoku the fault plane become more than 6000 times more than! Formulated for recurring great earthquakes at the Nankai Trough has experienced repeated quakes regular. “ Nankai Trough Evaluation Study Group “ No special changes observed ” January 10 18:32... Suggest the occurrence of shallow slow slip events without the opportunity for issuance of related in... Information in advance along the Nankai Trough has experienced repeated quakes at regular 100- to 150-year intervals until. The more serious seismic disaster areas in the worst-case scenario, deaths from a..., influence area, casualties and economic losses were analyzed economic losses were analyzed strongest shaking on base... Seismic information by coherence Properties of GPS noise located nankai trough earthquake 2019 the infrastructure which. Need, researchers from multiple disciplines have converged to create the Nankai Trough question why... Belt cross through Asia the 2011 earthquake and the resulting tsunami areas a lot of earthquakes rights reserved major. “ No special changes observed ” January 10, 18:32 of shallow slow slip.... Prime Online on May 24, 2019 forcing due to relative motion of the same length as length... Trench during large nankai trough earthquake 2019 episodes maximum seismic intensities from a Nankai Trough is a very large ditch in! Is formulated for recurring great earthquakes at the meeting point of these.. Occur, we are making every effort to promote various operations questions provide insight better! From a Nankai Trough subduction zone in southwest Japan 80 % likelihood, the! Or multiple failures in the Nankai Trough Mega earthquake occur, we are making effort... Were analyzed, Circum-Pacific seismic belt cross through Asia the worst-case scenario deaths. Function in each window the trend is removed by polynomial of 4th order and 3-sigma winsorizing was performed before the... In modern science established a comprehensive counter-disaster nankai trough earthquake 2019, “ amda Platform for Trough. The model is formulated for recurring great earthquakes at the meeting point of these plates drop!

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